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Aperture Reduction 
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Aperture Reduction 
 Phase Contrast
and Analysis
Cytometry in
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Calculation of
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Diagnostics in 
Curriculum vitae
of Oradea
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and microscopy
Optical Society 
of America

Capillaroscopy is an established examination mode in angiology, dermatology and rheumatology.
Several diseases can be recognized at an early stage by morphological or functional alterations of the capillaries.

In 1982 I collaborated with the Ernst Leitz Company and the Department for Angiology of the University of Bonn (Head: Prof. Dr. med. Gustav Truebestein) to create a laboratory for capillaroscopy based on current technical components for light microscopy, including lenses for long distance examinations, modified lenses for epi-illumination or epi-flourescence and suitable illumination techniques.

In 1997 an easy method for capillaroscopy was presented based on photographic magnifying lenses with changeable apertures. To achieve this, Leica-Photar objectives were connected to a usual laboratory light microscope. The focal depth and image contrast could be enhanced by closing the iris diaphragm of the  respective Photar objective.

This method was capable of examinations and photographic documentations of the paronychial capillaries. The nail fold is a convex structure and its capillaries are situated in various planes. Thus, the life microscopy and photomicrography of these capillaries could be fundamentally improved when the iris diaphragms of the Photar lenses were appropriately closed.

Variable epi-illumination effects could be achieved by cold light and flash light sources equipped with optical swan neck cables (Novoflex Macrolight Plus). By using the flash, potential  lack of sharpness caused by vibration or movement could be avoided in photomicrographic images.


Normal capillaries of the nail fold, epi-illumination, Leica Photar 1:2,4 / 12,5 mm, working distance: 8mm,
Novoflex Macrolight Plus, TTL flash



Piper, J.: Utilization of photographic magnifying lenses in clinical capillaroscopy
- an attractive mode in diagnostics and photographic documentation (in German)
Vasomed 9, 194-197, 1997

Copyright: Joerg Piper, Bad Bertrich, Germany, 2010


[Luminance Contrast]
[Relief Phase Contrast]
[Aperture Reduction Phase Contrast]
[Aperture Reduction Darkfield]
[Digital Phase Contrast]
[Digital Photomicrography and Analysis]
[Cytometry in Reflexion Contrast]
[Calculation of Cardiovascular Risk]
[Behavioral Risk Management]
[Efficiency in Rehabilitation]
[Diagnostics in Rehabilitation]
[Complementary Medicine]
[Curriculum vitae]
[University of Oradea]
[U.N.E. Brussels]
[Journals of optics and microscopy]
[Optical Society of America]